Sunday, July 31, 2016

Latin pronunciation

What Latin Sounded Like - and how we know


Published on Mar 25, 2013
This is a comprehensive collection of the spiritual texts recited in Sanskrit with translations in English & Hindi


Samādhi (Sanskrit: समाधि, Hindi pronunciation: [səˈmaːd̪ʱi]), also called samāpatti, in Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, Sikhism and yogicschools refers to a state of meditative consciousness. It is a meditative absorption or trance, attained by the practice of dhyāna.[1] Insamādhi the mind becomes still. It is a state of being totally aware of the present moment; a one-pointedness of mind[web 1].
In Buddhism, it is the last of the eight elements of the Noble Eightfold Path.[web 2] In the Ashtanga Yoga tradition, it is the eighth and final limb identified in the Yoga Sūtras of Patañjali.[2][3]


Several years ago, concurrently with its ongoing research into Vipassana, the Vipassana Research Institute (VRI) assumed a monumental undertaking: the publication of an authentic version of the Pali literature in Devanagari script. To understand the significance of this project, it is necessary to briefly describe the sources of Vipassana Meditation.

This web site is based on the Chaṭṭha Saṅgāyana CD published by the Vipassana Research Institute. Based at Dhamma Giri, Igatpuri, near Mumbai, India, the Vipassana Research Institute also publishes literature & disseminates information related to Vipassana Meditation Technique as taught byS.N.Goenka in the tradition ofSayagyi U Ba Khin.

Vipassana is a universal, scientific method towards purifying the mind. It is the practical essence of the teachings of the Buddha, who taught Dhamma - the Universal Law of Nature.

Pali (Pāli) is a Prakrit language native to the Indian subcontinent. It is widely studied because it is the language of much of the earliest extant literature ofBuddhism as collected in the Pāli Canon or Tipiṭaka and is the sacred languageof Buddhism.


A dvandva (Sanskrit द्वन्द्व dvandva 'pair') is a linguistic compound in which multiple individual nouns are concatenated to form an agglomerated compound word in which the conjunction 'and' has been elided to form a new word with a distinct semantic field. So, for instance, the individual words 'brother' and 'sister' may be agglomerated to 'brothersister' to express "siblings". The grammatical number of such constructs is generally plural or dual. The term dvandva is borrowed from Sanskrit, a language in which these linguistic compounds are common. Dvandvas also exist in Avestan, the Old Iranian language related to Sanskrit, as well as in numerous Modern Indic languages descended from the Prakrits. Several far-eastern languages such as Chinese, Japanese, and Korean also have dvandvas. Dvandvas may also be found occasionally in European languages, but are relatively rare.
Examples include:
  • Sanskrit mātāpitarau (मातापितरौ) for "parents" (lit. 'mother-father').
  • Chinese shānchuān and Japanese yamakawa (山川) for 'mountains and rivers'[further explanation needed]
  • Modern Greek μαχαιροπήρουνο /maçeɾoˈpiɾuno/ for "cutlery" (lit. 'fork-knife'), ανδρόγυνο /anˈðɾoʝino/ for "married couple" (lit. 'husband-wife').
  • Finnic maa-ilma ("land-air") for "world".
  • Friulian marimont ("sea-world") for "the entire world, the universe"
Dvadvas should not be confused with agglutination, which also concatenates words but is a different process.

Voice (grammar)

In grammar, the voice (also called diathesis) of a verb describes the relationship between the action (or state) that the verb expresses and the participants identified by its arguments (subject, object, etc.). When the subject is the agent or doer of the action, the verb is in the active voice. When the subject is the patient, target or undergoer of the action, the verb is said to be in the passive voice.
For example, in the sentence:
The cat ate the mouse.
The verb "ate" is in the active voice, but in the sentence:
The mouse was eaten by the cat.
The verbal phrase "was eaten" is passive.
The hunter killed the bear.
The verb "killed" is in the active voice, and the doer of the action is the "hunter". To make this passive:
The bear was killed by the hunter.
The verbal phrase "was killed" is followed by the word "by" and then by the doer "hunter".
In a transformation from an active-voice clause to an equivalent passive-voice construction, the subject and the direct object switch grammatical roles. The direct object gets promoted to subject, and the subject demoted to an (optional) complement. In the examples above, the mouse serves as the direct object in the active-voice version, but becomes the subject in the passive version. The subject of the active-voice version, the cat, becomes part of a prepositional phrase in the passive version of the sentence, and could be left out entirely.
The passive voice is employed in a clause whose subject expresses the theme or patient of the verb. That is, it undergoes an action or has its state changed.[1]
In the passive voice the grammatical subject of the verb is the recipient (not the doer) of the action denoted by the verb.
The Spanish language and the English language use a periphrastic passive voice; that is, it is not a single word form, but rather a construction making use of other word forms. Specifically, it is made up of a form of the auxiliary verb to be and a past participle of the main verb. In other languages, such as Latin, the passive voice is simply marked on the verb by inflection: librum legit "He reads the book"; liber legitur "The book is read".
Some languages (such as Albanian, Bengali, Fula, Tamil, Sanskrit, Icelandic, Swedish and Ancient Greek) have a middle voice. This is a set of inflections or constructions which is to some extent different from both the active and passive voices. The middle voice is said to be in the middle between the active and the passive voices because the subject often cannot be categorized as either agent or patient but may have elements of both. For example it may express what would be an intransitive verb in English. For example, inThe casserole cooked in the oven, cooked is syntactically active but semantically passive. In Classical Greek, the middle voice often has a reflexive sense: the subject acts on or for itself, such as "The boy washes himself", or "The boy washes". It can be transitive or intransitive. It can occasionally be used in a causative sense, such as "The father causes his son to be set free", or "The father ransoms his son".
In English there is no longer a verb form for the middle voice, though some uses may be classified as middle voice, often resolved via a reflexive pronoun, as in "Fred shaved", which may be expanded to "Fred shaved himself" – contrast with active "Fred shaved John" or passive "John was shaved by Fred". This need not be reflexive, as in "my clothes soaked in detergent overnight". English used to have a distinct form, called the passival, which was displaced over the early 19th century by the passive progressive (progressive passive), and is no longer used in English.[2][3] In the passival, one would say "the house is building", which is today instead "the house is being built"; likewise "the meal is eating", which is now "the meal is being eaten". Note that the similar "Fred is shaving" and "the clothes are soaking" remain grammatical. It is suggested that the progressive passive was popularized by the Romantic poets, and is connected with Bristol usage.[2][4]
Many deponent verbs in Latin are survivals of the Proto-Indo-European middle voice.

Topic-prominent languages like Mandarin tend not to employ the passive voice as frequently. Mandarin-speakers construct the passive voice by using the coverb 被 (bèi) and rearranging the usual word order.[5] For example, this sentence using active voice:
Note: the first line is in Traditional Chinese while the second is Simplified Chinese.
"A dog has bitten this man."
corresponds to the following sentence using passive voice. Note that the agent phrase is optional.
"This man was bitten (by a dog)."
In addition, through the addition of the auxiliary verb "to be" (shì) the passive voice is frequently used to emphasise the identity of the actor. This example places emphasis on thedog, presumably as opposed to some other animal:
Thismanto beBEIdogbite-PERFECT.
"This man was bitten by a dog."
Although a topic-prominent language, Japanese employs the passive voice quite frequently, and has two types of passive voice, one that corresponds to that in English and an indirect passive not found in English. This indirect passive is used when something undesirable happens to the speaker.
"His wallet was stolen by a thief."
"I was lied to by her." (or "She lied to me.")

Bhagavad Gita

The Bhagavad Gita (Sanskrit: श्रीमद्भगवद्गीता, Śrīmadbhagavadgītā, Sanskrit pronunciation: [ˈbʱəɡəʋəd̪ ɡiːˈt̪aː] ( )), literally meaning The Song of the Bhagavan, often referred to as simply the Gita, is a 700-verse scripture that is part of the Hindu epicMahabharata. It is a sacred text of the Hindus.
The Gita is set in a narrative framework of a dialogue between Pandava prince Arjuna and his guide Lord Krishna. Facing the duty to kill his relatives, Arjuna is "exhorted by his charioteer, Kṛiṣhṇa, among others, to stop hesitating and fulfill his Kṣatriya (warrior) duty as a warrior and kill."[1] Inserted[1] in this appeal to ksatriyadharma (heroism)[2] is "a dialogue [...] between diverging attitudes concerning and methods toward the attainment of liberation (moksha).[3]
The Bhagavad Gita presents a synthesis[4][5] of the Brahmanical concept of Dharma,[4][5][6] theistic bhakti,[7][6] the yogic ideals[5] ofliberation[5] through jnana,[7] and Samkhya philosophy.[web 1][note 1]
Numerous commentaries have been written on the Bhagavad Gita with widely differing views on the essentials. Vedanta commentators read varying relations between Self and Brahman in the text: Advaita Vedanta sees the non-dualism of Atman and Brahman as its essence,[8] whereas Bhedabheda and Vishishtadvaita see Atman and Brahman as both different and non-different, and Dvaita sees them as different. The setting of the Gita in a battlefield has been interpreted as an allegory for the ethical and moral struggles of the human life.
The Bhagavad Gita's call for selfless action inspired many leaders of the Indian independence movement including Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, who referred to the Gita as his "spiritual dictionary"

  • The Bhagavad Gita - E-text of the Bhagavad Gita, and the Sanatsugatiya and Anugita. A translation from the 19th century.
  • Bhagavad Gita - Features audio and video clips, links, discourses, practical examples and humorous anecdotes.
  • Bhagavad Gita - conversation with God - God's conversation with man on the way to true eternal happiness.
  • Bhagavad Gita As It Is - Edition by A.C. Bhaktivedanta Swami Prabhupada with transliteration and meaning of the Sanskrit verses.
  • The Bhagavad Gita: The Divine Song of God - Read the entire Bhagavad Gita online and hear the original sanskrit verses sung in traditional melodies. Audio files in MP3 format.
  • Bhagavad-Gita - Text and audio recitations in many languages, along with a description of the Brahma-Madhva-Gaudiya sampradaya and avataras of Krishna.
  • Bhagvad Gita - Information about the Hindu scripture called Bhagvad Gita.
  • Geeta Saar - A translation of the scripture.
  • The Gita Space - Verses and teachings of Gita. Includes comments by various acharyas and a list of books.
  • Shree Bhagwad Gita - Articles about the Hindu text Bhagwad Gita ("Song of the Lord"), written circa 3000 B.C.